Bruce Reilly Testifies on the Historical Racism Leading to Felon Disenfranchisement

0197.1Bruce Reilly speaks to the National Voting Rights Commission during their national tour to speak to the constitutional history of Louisiana’s disenfranchisement of African Americans since emancipation.  

His testimony is part of a forthcoming publication: “To Purify the Ballot: The Racial History of Felon Disenfranchisement in Louisiana.”

Listen to it here.

Posted in Race, Voting Rights | Tagged , , , , , , , | 1 Comment

Oscar-nominated “Prison Terminal” exposes the other American death penalty

1012056_634876503241069_971098256_nIf there is one thing a documentary film should strive for, it is exposing people to a little-known aspect of life. This is precisely what filmmaker Edgar Barens has done with his Oscar nominated film, “Prison Terminal: The Last Days of Private Jack Hall.” It premieres on HBO, on March 31st, and is poised to stir up some substantial changes in America, the global incarceration leader, where approximately 250,000 aging people are behind bars.  According to the Bureau of Justice Statistics, between 2001 and 2011, cancer and heart disease were the leading causes of over 3000 annual deaths in state prisons. Another 1000 people die every year in local jails, often with little or no health care.

I met Edgar Barens in 2009, when he had 300 hours of footage from the Iowa State Penitentiary’s hospice unit, shot over six months in 2006-2007.  Prison administrators invited him to do a story after seeing his previous documentary Angola Prison Hospice.  This latest product is a forty-minute film nominated for an Academy Award. Coincidentally, Prison Terminal is about the death of Jack Hall, a World War II POW survivor, while the winning film was about the last survivor of the Holocaust.

Jack Hall is proud of his military service, yet remains haunted by the hundreds of farm boys, tradesmen, and regular folks he killed while wearing the uniform.  It is interesting that the government awarded medals for these killings, but sentenced him to die in prison for killing the man who sold drugs to his son. The latter was probably the only time he had a genuine motivation to end someone’s life, but Jack’s story here is not about that homicide.  The story is deeper, taking us to a crossroad of multiple dilemmas in America’s criminal justice system.


Pvt. Jack Hall.

The Disposable Heroes

Incarcerated veterans are vastly growing in number, as they historically do after every war, with estimates ranging from 140,000 to 250,000 currently behind bars.  It should come as no surprise that Jack Hall’s experience of killing, seeing friends die, and being held in an enemy prison might leave more than a few scars. It is understandable that any such person might seek to suppress their thoughts with alcohol or drugs, and may also have a hard time holding down a regular job.  This PTSD and effects, and effects of effects, helps explain the record high disposable heroes currently locked up in prison after their Iraq and/or Afghanistan tours.  It is only amplified by America’s shortcomings in soldier reentry and rehabilitation (words typically used for prisoners returning home, but soldiers’ experiences can be frighteningly similar).

At the heart of Prison Terminal is a hospice program, where fellow inmates are serving as the volunteers and providing end-of-life care.  In another twist on presumptions, Jack is a former Segregationist who found himself living in the most intense racial experiment throughout history. The viewer doesn’t experience Jack’s evolution over the previous years, but what we see is the shared love and humility of two primary caretakers in action: “Herky,” and “Love,” both Black men.  Both also convicted of killing someone and will apparently also die behind bars. As they see it, what they do for Jack will hopefully be done for them when the time comes.

Many members of the general public develop their views of prisons through television shows such as Oz, Orange Is The New Black, and LockUp.  Furthermore, most documentaries focus on a wronged situation, such as exonerations, drug war casualties, and political prisoners. Prison Terminal defies stereotypes and presents a familiar world to those who have been incarcerated, and their families.  Herky and Love are like hundreds of people I know: just waiting for a burning car on the side of the road so they can save some kids. It will never erase the terrible things that gets someone into prison, but will at least make looking in the mirror a little easier by creating a counter-narrative, about helping humanity rather than hurting.  Not to imply that everyone in prison is an angel, nor even that the majority are there for something terrible, but the number of lifelong malicious and selfish people in prisons is a far smaller than most would ever imagine.


Herky, a hospice worker featured in the film.

It should not come as a massive surprise that the majority of hospice workers in Iowa are Black.  As examined in the book, “Mothering in Prison,” some communities unfortunately have learned to expect travesties. Coming up out of slavery and through a challenging American history, Black people have had to adapt to survive, and take care of their wounded family.  Here, Jack Hall is part of this family regardless of his color. And to Jack’s credit, healing his previously-strained relationship with the son who turned him in is a core part of the dying process.

Prisoner health care: an oxymoron

Prison health care in America primarily consists of popping pills, and scant staffs struggling with sparse budgets. If they are going to take control of someone’s body, the government has a legal and moral duty to take care of it.  However, not every person enters prison with a clean bill of health.  They go in with cancer, diabetes, HIV, and every other ailment afflicting the general public.  Perhaps on the outside they had a job, insurance, or even coverage under the Affordable Care Act. And then they are sent into this jungle. The diet is terrible and, at times, the exercise non-existent.  Leave someone in prison long enough and they will certainly contract any ailment one would expect on the outside.

The growth of American prisons over time is creatively illustrated below.

There are only 75 hospices in the thousands of American jails and prisons, and only twenty are staffed with prisoner volunteers. People should die with their families, especially the ones closest to their hearts.  Iowa’s hospice program struggled since the film was made, as a new director was not as passionate about the program. This signals the need for specific policies to be in place, to survive turnover and attitude. The program costs absolutely nothing, with everything donated (including hospital beds) or made by prisoners. Hospice actually saves money by weaning people off costly medications and treatments in their final days.

Some states have responded to the medical crisis by building multi-million dollar medical facilities that will need to be staffed and maintained over the years.  This also creates more overall beds in the system; beds to be filled. Every prison should instead convert space already in place, and consider Medical Parole whenever possible. Not everyone has somewhere to go in the final years, and granting homelessness to sick people is not providing dignified deaths.

Edgar Barens is taking Prison Terminal on a tour that will include dozens of prisons throughout the nation.  This film should be seen. A five-minute version should be screened for politicians.  Hopefully they, like Iowa, will recognize that it is possible to do better. They can respect families and religions, and make a considerable reform within this terrible phenomenon of mass incarceration.  Furthermore, the Veterans Affairs administrators can watch this film and reconsider the final crime in Jack’s case: the VA would not allow him to be buried with honors due to the “Timothy McVeigh” rule, barring people convicted of capital crimes from a final acknowledgment of their service.  Jack’s final respite, despite fears his service would send him to Hell, was to be buried as a soldier.  Instead, the prison fingerprinted and disposed of him, his life, and death.

Pvt. Jack Hall escaped from a POW camp, yet could not escape that one moment of rage as an unwilling soldier in the War on Drugs.

Find out more at


Posted in Death Penalty, Prison Conditions, Prisoner Health, Uncategorized | Tagged , , , , , , , , , , , , | 1 Comment

Sen. Whitehouse will need more than bipartisanship for prison reform in America

senateToday a group of people sat down in Providence to talk with Senator Whitehouse about his bill to create a federal parole system.

The bill is hailed as a “prison reform bill,” and passed the Senate Judiciary Committee; a clear indication of the shifting tide on political ideology over the past few years.  This ebbing of the ‘Tough on Crime’ rhetoric includes many people who were bipartisan architects of the prison industry itself, and jibes with Attorney General Eric Holder’s public desire to make the system “more just.”  Of course, this indicates he believes it is currently less just than it should be.  The voices you have heard over the past several years talking “reform” are the result of those of us who have been peeing in the pool long enough to warm it up so everybody can get in.  Even if just a toe, they’re getting in.

lockedup_pieThis prison reform bill is quite overstated however, and falls well short of what the public is truly calling for- something Senator Whitehouse appeared to be going for with his former bill to create a commission of experts that would propose a national overhaul.

The Recidivism Reduction and Public Safety Act of 2014 will have no impact on state prisoners, where six times more men, women and children are serving prison terms than under federal law.  Furthermore, it will have no impact on the 722,000 people currently sitting in a local jail- a snapshot of the 12 million who cycle through that system [see the graphic above].  Its not easy for the feds to control state crime and punishment under the law, but like anything else: the feds could put strings attached to all the financial subsidies of a bursting prison industry.

What’s in it for anybody?

The bill will impact tens of thousands of people nationally who will now gain an opportunity at parole, but what the bill now deems “Prerelease Custody.”  They can do this by engaging in what we once considered educational and rehabilitative programming, but the bill deems “Recidivism Reduction” programming.  This wordsmithing is no different than calling oneself a “Pre-Owned Car Dealer” (which is what they do, these days).  To assess the merits, it is important not to be distracted by shiny new things.

The Good Time credits earned by federal inmates are not available to everybody, and they are not time off one’s sentence the way they commonly are applied to state custody. (The time can be converted to parole time).  Furthermore, parolees in halfway houses and on electronic monitoring pay for their own incarceration, sometimes to their own financial ruin.  Thus, this is not a handout by any means yet does pose a possibility for the prison system to generate additional revenues from the predominantly low-income and struggling families trying to rebuild a life after prison.

Slavery by another name: Prison Labor

The bill prioritizes an expansion of prison labor, viewed as a form of rehabilitation and method of reducing recidivism.  It is impossible to discount the value of having a prison job for the prisoner, even at 12 cents per hour of income.  However, it is difficult not to think of one ominous phrase “Arbeit Macht Frei” infamously posted over Camp Auschwitz.  Work makes you free.  A prison worker gets time off their sentence, and this bill calls for the Bureau of Prisons to review in what ways the prison labor force can be used to make goods currently manufactured overseas, so as not to cut into the free labor pool.

The use of prison labor is controversial, to say the least.  Some critics have called for a repeal of the 13th Amendment, which provides for slavery of anyone convicted of a crime.  This provision allowed for the massive “convict lease labor” that built a considerable amount of American infrastructure after slavery was abolished.  The legal framework that is said to have freed Black America also allowed for people to be rounded up and placed, fundamentally, back where, essentially, Black America had been liberated from.

Today, prison labor exploiters capitalize upon incarcerated people’s desire to stay busy rather than sit on a bunk all day.  This sort of macro-management does not take into account the relevance of a worker’s feelings.  People in the system are treated with the callousness of lab rats, which may be all fine in the punishment phase, yet counterproductive when doing anti-recidivism, rehabilitative, or reentry programming.  Does Johnny have a job, a home, or health care?  Check.  The assessments never ask if Johnny is happy.

Reentry programming still being run by those who have never reentered

The Recidivism Reduction and Public Safety Act also focuses on reviewing current reentry programs and developing federal pilot programs based on the best practices.  This is an admirable goal and an obvious step to take.  The challenge is to correctly assess best practices, and then implement what might feel controversial.  For example, many policies prevent formerly incarcerated people (FIP) from affiliating with one another, and yet this bill references mentorships.  It is likely that the drafters visualized a well-intentioned citizen with no criminal involvement and demonstrated success showing the way to someone getting out of prison.  Yet such a person has very little to offer in the sense of mentorship.  An FIP often grows frustrated with social workers, mentors, and probation officers who feign to understand the pressures of post-prison life.  The best mentors are role models, and in this scenario will be FIPs.

This legislation also puts a considerable focus on risk assessment models, as though they are a new pathway to success.  However, these tools have been in use for decades, and nowhere in the bill is there a call to study their individual accuracies.  Several states, for example, uses the LSI-R scoring system.  The irony of in-custody assessments, that take all of forty five minutes to conduct, then a few minutes per year to update, are how a high-risk prisoner can be a low-risk free person.  Conformity in prison does not translate to the attributes required for successful living in free society.  Furthermore, an antagonistic interviewer will likely invoke anti-social responses from a someone, thus along with their past criminal activity, setting the foundation for an entire course of reentry opportunity.

The fundamental flaw in many prison-related programs, particularly after the Bush Administration’s Second Chance Act, is the lack of involvement of affected people.  The Senator’s roundtable consists primarily of law enforcement and some non-profit workers with no conviction history.   The stakeholder list is upside down.  Law enforcement does not have a stake in my successful reentry.  In fact, they have a stake in my failed reentry- so yes, they are a stakeholder, but in a perverse manner.  After being punished by a group of people, be it months or decades, there is no trust in place for the punisher to then be the healer.  For the government to believe otherwise only underscores these misconceptions and miscommunications of trying to reposition the pawns on the board.

Apparently there were two affected people at the table.  Rhode Island is a very small place with few affected policy experts and activists.  Curiously, however, none of those were invited- and most were unaware until they saw the Senator’s press release.

It is not for law enforcement, politicians, or nonprofits to decide the leaders, or the participants, from any group.  That task is left to those constituencies, be they in a foreign nation, laborers, or families with conviction histories.  An American democracy needs to maintain respect for, and support, democratic principles within communities.

The second class citizens

No public defenders, and hardly any nonprofits, are run by people who have “been there, done that.”  When efforts like this use those agencies to speak for a disempowered population, it only further delegitimizes people with criminal histories, only furthers the second-class citizenship, and continues to render us without a voice.  Rather than confronting any counter-narrative an FIP presents to policy reform, we are often disregarded as unruly, unmanageable, or uncivilized.  Yet we are the ones seeing our selves and our family members dropping off the map, figuratively and literally, every day.  Reducing recidivism and increasing public safety can only be done by a full restoration of people to being equal and valued members of society, especially the overwhelming number who are (on paper) “citizens” of America.

Efforts like these are akin to watching someone fish without bait.  As expensive a boat, pole, and hook they use… they just don’t realize why the fish don’t simply leap onto the hook.


Posted in Legislation | Tagged , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

When Candidates Oppose the Right to Vote

Sheriff candidates“Citizenship means standing up for everyone’s right to vote,” Obama said.  But does he, and other politicians truly mean it?  At a recent forum featuring four candidates for the New Orleans sheriff election, I asked a question regarding voting rights to understand their views on democracy.  I wanted to know if any candidates sought support from all people in the city.  From their responses, it seemed that none were accurately aware that 7000 of their neighbors, including me, are disenfranchised.

Louisiana has approximately 45,000 people living in the community on probation and parole, with 7000 being supervised in New Orleans.  These people live in every district, pay taxes, work, raise families, and are denied the most fundamental right of democracy: voting.  It is the most basic right of citizenship, as recognized by the U.S. Supreme Court and the United Nations.  Those denied the right to vote are essentially “stateless persons” or internally displaced refugees.  They, arguably, have fewer rights than a foreign citizen.

None of the candidates appeared overly familiar with the issue, and they presented little analysis or rationale other than the understandable instinct that stripping someone of all their rights is an acceptable punishment for crime.  Only one candidate, Ira Thomas, was available to speak with me.  After explaining a few basic elements of the situation, he expressed a willingness to work on the issue and truly encourage people to act like, and be, full citizens of the city.  He is also the only candidate who has not overseen part of 40 years of failure, corruption, and death at the Orleans Parish Prison.

Most people on probation never went to prison.  Most of them committed lesser crimes, or served their time, which is the only way they are able to be out in the community.  The judge released them from court with a caveat: stay out of trouble for a while, and you can escape the Sword of Damocles that is suspended over you.  Judges and probation officers expect people to hold an honest job or go to school, and live in peace.  No judge ever sentenced a person to stop voting, or to be homeless and unemployed.

The Housing Authority of New Orleans (HANO) recently agreed to ease their policy on excluding entire families where one person has a criminal record.  This change stemmed from the organizing efforts and technical expertise of Voice of the Ex-Offender (VOTE) and Stand With Dignity.  Similarly, Mayor Landrieu has decided to “Ban the Box” for the city, allowing people with criminal histories a realistic chance to apply for a job by holding back those questions until the interview.  These moves are a direct response to the nationwide over-criminalization of people during the previous three decades.

People who are encouraged to be part of the community are more likely to abide by the law.  People with jobs are less likely to need illegal activity to pay the bills.  Ultimately those who are doing the right thing are those who want to show up and cast a vote.  But this isn’t even about criminal justice policy, rehabilitation, and reentry.  It is about democracy, and more nefariously: about policies crafted to counteract Black Suffrage, and have now created a class of “unworthy” people, no different than the Black, Native American and female people who came before us.

My question for candidates is this: what is their message to me and my 7000 neighbors: Get involved with New Orleans, stay in the shadows, or simply leave?

Bruce Reilly is a law student at Tulane University.  He is denied voting rights after moving to Louisiana, although he drafted the constitutional amendment that restored his rights in Rhode Island.  

Posted in Commentary, Politics, Race, Rehabilitation, Voting Rights | Tagged , , , , , , , , , | 1 Comment

Are Schools Violating the American With Disabilities Act Every Time a Kid Goes to Court?

Illustration by Chris Buzelli

Illustration by Chris Buzelli

Are you looking for a new approach to dismantling the School-to-Prison Pipeline?  The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA) and Rehabilitation Act bar any federal program, or institutions receiving federal grants (such as schools), from discriminating against people due to their physical or mental disability.  A school is not allowed to keep students from participation due to their physical or mental disability.

The most obvious federal grant money going to schools, in this scenario, is the federal program COPS in Schools (CIS).  According to the Department of Justice, CIS has provided over $753 million in federal dollars to subsidize the police deployment in schools.  Most, if not all, schools are tasked with educating children who have diagnosed mental illnesses and disabilities.  Many of these students have Individual Education Plans (IEPs) that account for their particular medical challenges.

When a school fails to provide for the IEP, which may necessitate particular counseling or an individualized setting, they may be violating the ADA.  When a student manifests their illness (“acting out”), and are then dealt with punitively: they are likely violating the ADA.  When the school police arrest them, especially for non-criminal conduct such as “creating a disturbance,” they are not only likely violating the ADA but also drawing in the juvenile justice system for complicity.  This means that judges, sheriffs, district attorneys and others may all be in violation of the ADA when the manifestation of a mental illness causes a denial of program activity.

Kids will act up, we know this.  Some kids have particular issues that are not being addressed which in turn heightens the child’s illness and practically induces the behavior that any psychologist would have anticipated.  Naming a child’s case as “difficult” does not release school officials from their responsibilities.  The worst case scenarios (expulsions and prisons) are happening on a daily basis following non-criminal behavior.

Creative attorneys may want to closely read the Americans with Disabilities Act.  Juvenile defenders may want to sit down with their friends who do education, health care, and class action cases.  This has gone on for far too long.

Posted in Courts, Education, Mental Health, prison economics | Tagged , , , , , , , , , | 1 Comment

Confession of a Drug Dealer

marijuana-in-bag-big-hemp-beach-tv-hbtvThere is a whole lotta shaking going on in Colorado, Washington, and Uruguay these days. And it’s all about weed. Even a conservative columnist had to chime in about the big bad scary weed, as if he can revive the Reefer Madness and shockin Aww that made a rather benign plant very valuable, and very illegal for almost a century. I’m reminded of a discussion I once had at a parole hearing.

“If we release you on parole, what do you see yourself doing with your life?”

I responded to the chairman of the Board that we are in the middle of a war. Wars can only be resolved when the opposing parties come to the table and negotiate a peace. These terms need to acknowledge past harms and future relations must allow all people to survive and thrive. The chairman was a bit confused until I used the phrase “Drug War,” officially declared as the Vietnam War ended.

My vision for post-prison was to help negotiate the peace. It is not a war on drugs, but a war against people. As we see the “peace” developing through medical-use marijuana, then turning possession into a municipal fine, and now full-scale legalization, I am still yet to see much of the so-called “enemy” in the drug war invited to the negotiating table. Instead, the government will try a unilateral solution. I once went to a legislative hearing, where many people in suits and uniforms declared their positions and statistics about marijuana. It was clear that some legislators really didn’t know much about selling or smoking pot. It was rather funny.

“But why an ounce? Why are we considering ‘an ounce or less’ for decriminalization? Why not less, or more?”

reefermadnessaffichefilmNobody had an answer for this arbitrary weight, or even why the preexisting laws around the country are based on any particular weights. When I testified, I announced myself as a former weed dealer, from small bags to large ones, in several different states. I sold my first bag in middle school, when I realized that if I bought an ounce for $200, I could sell eight bags to my buddies for $5 cheaper than they were already paying, and I could smoke for free. And then it took off from there. My testimony then, or in similar circumstances, aren’t about my historical credentials or knowledge of current drug industry players. I, too, share legal and statistical analysis- but I provide context for the issue.

I asked the legislator how much milk he buys when he goes to the store. A gallon? Two? A quart? Basically, we get a week’s worth of milk at the store. We buy the size containers available, whether at the corner bodega or the Winn-Dixie. An ounce of weed is about how much a steady smoker will buy until the next time. They may share some with friends, but a real merchant will buy more than an ounce… unless you’re counting twelve year old kids with the equivalent of a lemonade stand as a “dealer.” Having several small bags of marijuana can be the equivalent of having two gallons of milk for the family; there is no “intent to distribute” the other gallon. Yet drug laws have always presumed that one physical bag might be for a single user, and any second bag must be for sale.

This isn’t my “confession,” in case you were wondering (i.e. the title of this post). My confession is that I should never have quit selling marijuana.

I drank the kool-aid and believed that it was wrong. I used my business savvy and people skills to climb to the top of the heap, as a pot dealer. And then I would quit, as my real dream was never to be a drug lord, but to play football at Harvard and study political science. I dreamed of a dorm room and a meal card, and I could just blend in with the rest of the kids- and nobody had to know the dysfunction I was born into, or that I had nowhere to go on holidays. I never worshipped “Scarface,” or any other drug game fantasy. People around me had no idea of my secret ambitions, and were more accustomed to hearing dreams of a night club and a beach house with parties every night.

So I would quit, go to school, play sports, try out for the school play and not steal anything. Unfortunately, on several occasions, when the security of drug money dried up I wasn’t able to absorb any of the typical challenges I would later realize beset many people in poverty, even as adults. So I would return, penniless and at the bottom. After climbing to the top of modest heaps, I would bemoan being on the wrong heap… again. And fall for the rhetoric that being a “drug dealer” is so terrible.

When it came time to go to college (at Boston University rather than Harvard), it was difficult to fill out the financial aid paperwork because it wasn’t about me, but parents who were not in my life. I didn’t even know that one of them was already dead. I didn’t have a list of people to help sort out “normal” life, despite my ability to deftly deal with the underground economy and social structures. Unfortunately, I had no stack of cash either.

“None of us can help the things life has done to us. They’re done before you realize it, and once they’re done they make you do other things until at last everything comes between you and what you’d like to be, and you’ve lost your true self forever.”

Eugene O’Neill, Long Day’s Journey Into Night

I’ll push back on my fellow playwright and say I haven’t lost my true self forever. However, a series of events can amazingly take an entirely different direction based on what may seem like the simplest choices. And sometimes, that choice may not always appear as the “right” choice.

Mi confesión.

Posted in Commentary, Drug Policy | 1 Comment

Did Zimmerman’s Girlfriend Attack Him?

041312-national-george-zimmerman-arrested-in-courtThere he was, Standing his Ground again…  As has been reported, George Zimmerman was arrested for domestic violence charges.  Again.  The police are reporting that his girlfriend claims, “at one point during a verbal altercation he grabbed a shotgun and pointed it at her, broke a glass table and pushed her out the door.”  But can she be telling the truth?

His girlfriend suffered no injuries during the incident.  The last person Zimmerman pointed a gun at didn’t live to tell the story.  Pictures of the kid he killed went viral on the  Internet, with allegations that the boy was a thug, or a pot smoker, or may have even skipped some classes.  Did anyone ever apologize for such disrespect of the deceased?

What will happen with his girlfriend?  Will we be bombarded with photos of her holding a beer on Bourbon Street, saying how wild and crazy and aggressive she is?  Will we see photos of scratch marks she gave him?  Will we have visuals of her height and weight because, after all, Zimmerman is pretty short.  And we know how much short people are disadvantaged in a fight.

Sarcasm aside, people would be pilloried for suggesting that his girlfriend had it coming.  That she is a “thug.”  And yet to say that about young Trayvon Martin was perfectly normal course of debate- whether he was one of “those” Black kids, or one of the “good” ones.  Zimmerman’s defenders were willing, around the nation, to throw a young Black male under the bus to make a point about packing heat and using it.  Some Americans felt this is the cowboy way.

None of Zimmerman’s defenders are likely to take on 51% of America (women) and a highly organized group of people scaling back the problem of domestic violence.  When one examines the bedfellows that come out of a public controversy, the subtle motivators are often quite clear.  Particularly in a scenario where we have one guy with a gun, two different people on the other end.

I am not one to convict someone after a single news story.  As far as I know, she did attack him, or made up the whole thing in an extortion plot, or any number of possible scenarios.  But what it looks like is that George Zimmerman can kill all the Black teenagers he wants, just as long as he doesn’t hurt a woman.  That jury in his last case left many of us feeling cynical, jaded, and dumbfounded.  If people don’t want the Zimmerman double-standard to look like a textbook example of structural racism, they need to do something to change that appearance.  

Posted in Commentary, Race | Tagged , , , , , | 1 Comment